What are the decisive factors in a country's research and innovation
systems? What about the links between science and business? We present the
new Dossier of the Social Observatory of the "la Caixa" Foundation.
While the participation of female PhD holders in Portugal is situated above
the EU‑27 average in all fields of knowledge considered, in Spain the
participation of female PhD holders is situated below the European average
in the fields of art, humanities and social sciences.