Portugal is in an intermediate situation in relation to the leading countries in environmental innovation, whereas Spain is among the leading countries.
Direct (grants) and indirect (tax incentives) goverment support for business R&D
The model of governmental support for business R&D differs between Portugal and Spain, with a predominance of indirect support in Portugal`s case and direct support in that of Spain
The role of science and technology in the configuration of Portugal and Spain over the last five centuries
How has science developed in Portugal and Spain and how has it influenced the construction of the Iberian nations? The two books reviewed here analyse the subject.
Tools and resources for safeguarding ethics and improving integrity in scientific research
One of the great current challenges in research is process integrity and the reliability of results. What reforms are taking place in this area?
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